What are infectious diseases in children? How to identify symptoms? What should be done to protect? Answers to these questions International Hospital Istanbul Pediatric Specialist Contact Şebnem directly Giving.
: How is infectious diseases transmitted to the child?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: How diseases are transmitted is not always fully known. Most often, however, microbes are transmitted to healthy people through drops of sneezing or coughing from the person carrying the disease; or germs remain suspended in airborne dust; direct contact (hand contact), indirect contact (touching the object or articles of contact with the sick person), respiratory secretions or fecal transmission.
: What should be done to protect?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: Exposure to many diseases by improving the general health of the child can reduce the risk. This is achieved by the full vaccination, regular doctor checks, good nutrition and general hygiene rules (washing hands every time after changing toilet and diapers, proper disposal of dirty cloth). Prevention of contact with people with infectious diseases is also very important.
: Can you tell me about chickenpox?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: It can be seen in all seasons, mainly in late winter and spring. Most people have this disease in childhood. It's quite contagious. The causative agent is a virus. It is transmitted through the air through droplets. The infectious period lasts until all underlying lesions are involved in the crust. The incubation period is 14-16 days. Once infected, the first symptoms are mild fever, weakness, anorexia and itching. In 1-2 days, especially in the face and scalp, starting as a red stain in the middle and then turned into acne aqueous vesicles appear and spread to the entire body. The first vesicles begin to crust after 6-8 hours. Spills last on average 5-20 days.
: What needs to be done?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: The doctor must see for confirmation of the diagnosis. ASPIRINE IS NOT PROVIDED FOR FIRE. Antipyretics such as paracetamol should be given.
: Can children protect from chickenpox?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: It is a disease that can be protected by vaccination. Children older than 12 months should be vaccinated. The virus may remain silent and then turn into Shingles.
: Are complications seen?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: Rarely, encephalitis (Brain Inflammation) can be seen, pneumonia can occur, pregnant women are at risk of transmission to the fetus.
: Could you tell me about measles?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: It is more commonly seen in winter and spring. All unvaccinated individuals are at risk of disease. The causative agent is measles virus. 2 days before the onset of rashes in the body and 4 days after the rash continues until the infectious period, is transmitted through droplets. The incubation period is 8-12 days. Fever, runny nose, watery eyes and dry cough are seen for 1-2 days before the rash, sometimes diarrhea. Small white spots on the inside of the cheeks are formed in the mouth. Immediately after this, there are red rashes starting from the face and spreading to the body. The disease lasts for about 1 week. A doctor's check is essential for diagnosis. Especially in terms of monitoring complications, the child should be closely monitored, antipyretic therapy (paracetamol, warm shower) can be done, rest and abundant fluid-weighted nutrition is recommended. Ear inflammation, pneumonia (pneumonia), encephalitis (brain inflammation).
: Should I get a vaccine?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: Measles vaccination must be given to every child on time. Contact with infected persons should be avoided.
: Measles and rubella are mixed among the public. What is rubella a disease?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: It is more common in spring and winter. Vaccination can be seen in all humans. The agent is Rubella virus. It is transmitted directly or through the droplet. The infectious period is 1 week before the rash and 1 week after the rash. The incubation period lasts 14-21 days. Mild fever and swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck may occur. It then begins in the form of small, pinkish rashes on the face and spreads to the body. Lasts up to 4-5 days. No recurrence. Once spent immunity develops. It is usually a mild disease. If it is transmitted to the unvaccinated pregnant woman, it poses a risk for the fetus. There is no cure. There is no need for a change in nutrition. Vaccination is possible.
: What is mumps?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: The causative agent is the mumps virus. Everyone who has not been vaccinated is prone to infection. It is transmitted directly by respiratory secretions, the infectious period is 1-2 days before the onset of the disease and 9 days after onset. The incubation period lasts 16-18 days. Initially there may be symptoms such as fever, loss of appetite. There may be unilateral or bilateral swelling of the parotid glands on both sides of the jaw, swelling of the glands under the neck and ears, pain during chewing, and pain with sour and acidic foods. In some cases, there may be no findings. The doctor should see a doctor to confirm the diagnosis. If you have symptoms such as vomiting, somnolence or headache, a doctor should be consulted for the risk of meningoencephalitis. Symptomatic treatment (pain and antipyretics), cold compresses to the cheeks, acid-free, non-sour soft foods are recommended. Vaccination is possible.
: Although less known, the fifth and sixth diseases fall within the scope of infectious diseases. Can you tell me about these diseases?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: The fifth disease is caused by human parvo virus. It is transmitted by human to human contact. It is mostly seen between the ages of 2-12. The incubation period is 4-14 days. Initially, there may be joint pain and mild fever. The first significant finding is intense redness of the face. Afterwards, redness and rash are seen on the arms and legs. The rash may disappear and reappear in 2-3 weeks. Rash may occur again, especially when exposed to heat. There is no cure. There is no vaccine. Sixth disease is caused by human herpes virus. The route of transmission is by respiratory secretions or feces. It is especially common in children between 3 months and 4 years. The incubation period is 5-15 days. Restlessness, loss of appetite and very high fever are signs of onset. Sometimes runny nose, swelling of lymph nodes and convulsions can be seen. 3-4 days fever falls and the baby is good, during this period, starting on the trunk, spreading all over the body is seen pinkish rash. Rarely, there may be no rash. The disease lasts for 3-6 days.
: Is scarlet fever seen in preschool?
Dr. Sebnem Ersoy: It is especially common in school-age children. It is less common in adults under 3 years of age. Transmission occurs through direct contact with the infected person. Incubation period is 2-5 days, fever, common pain, sore throat, anorexia starts, vomiting is common, within 1-2 days, more prominent in the groin and cola folds bright red rashes appear, spread throughout the body. Take 1-2 weeks, then peel the skin. The doctor should see and confirm the diagnosis with throat culture if necessary. Antibiotics and antipyretic symptomatic treatment are given. Abundant fluids and soft foods are recommended. Isolation of infected persons should be ensured and hygiene rules must be followed.