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Pregnancy is an average of 40 weeks. During this long period, some changes occur in the body of pregnant women. Some of these are also observed in the skin. Since the lesions seen in the skin are constantly considered, it is highly cared for by pregnant women. Some diseases occur during pregnancy. Some existing diseases worsen or improve due to hormonal changes in pregnancy. Skin changes during pregnancy can be listed as follows:
Pregnancy Stretch Marks: In the later months of pregnancy, red, slight collapse of the skin may occur cracks. These are caused by straining the fibers of the dermal connective tissue and breaking of the dermal elastic fibers and excessive stretching of the skin. It usually occurs after the 16th week. Excessive and rapid weight gain, genetic predisposition, multiple pregnancies are the factors. The situation can be controlled with various brand creams on the market, at least if there is a crack, it can be ensured to be limited. A drug that completely penetrates or prevents the formation of cracks is not known. Stretch creams should generally be applied to the skin thoroughly after showering. It should be applied not only to the abdomen but also to the nipples, the inner and outer sides of the legs and the outer sides of the hips. Cracks are more pronounced in people with low skin elasticity.
Color changes: Changes in the skin occur due to the change in estrogen, progesterone, various androgens, adrenal steroids (cortisol, aldosterone) monitored during pregnancy. In many women, the light colored line called ortasında linea alba bulunan, which is located in the middle of the abdominal skin, becomes pigmented significantly and becomes darker and takes the name “linea nigra.. Occasionally, there are brown patch lesions of various sizes on the face and neck, called the “pregnancy mask.. These pigmentation changes generally regress after birth. Similar changes may be observed in those taking birth control pills. Melanocyte stimulating hormone is accused from this table. At 8 weeks of gestation, MSH increases due to enlargement of the middle lobe of the pituitary gland. Thus, storage of melanin into epidermal and dermal macrophages is increased. Hyperpigmentation is more prominent in natural pigmented areas such as nipple, genital area, umbilical circumference. Areas such as the armpits and the inner surface of the legs become darker. The blood level of melanocyte stimulating hormone decreases rapidly after birth and pigmentation begins to decline. Ultraviolet light enhances surface changes by stimulating melanogenesis. In this case, you need to stay away from the sun. In general, hyperpigmentation decreases after birth but may persist for 10 years in one third of patients.
During pregnancy, two-thirds of white women have lesions called vascular spiders. These are red lesions that form radial protrusions from the central lesion to the environment in the upper half of the face, neck and trunk. Sometimes palmar erythema called red palms are observed. This condition, which is seen in various liver diseases other than pregnancy, is related to the increase of blood flow in small blood vessels during pregnancy. Blood flow in the skin increases during pregnancy, peripheral vascular resistance decreases, hands and feet increase in heat. Gingival bleeding due to capillary fullness can also be seen on the gums.
Pruritis gravidarum: It is due to slowing of the flow in the biliary tract and accumulation of bile salts. It is characterized by widespread itching throughout the body. Bile salt retention occurs, serum levels increase and bile salts are stored in the dermis. Itching occurs, skin lesions develop secondary to scratching. Pregnancy hormones, genetic and environmental factors are important in the development of this condition.
Ben: Pregnant moles grow and darken before pregnancy.
Hair and hair: Anagen phase, which is the hair growth phase during pregnancy, is relatively prolonged and estrogen prolongs the anagen phase. Androgens cause hair follicles to expand. After birth this positive effect passes and hair loss may occur. It is usually evident between 1-4 months after birth. It then regresses on its own and normal hair growth occurs between 6-12 months. Hair on the face and around the navel regress after birth.
PUPPP: (Pruritic Urticaria Papules and Plaque). It is the most common pregnancy-specific skin disease in pregnancy. It is seen 1/200 in singleton pregnancies and 8/200 in twin pregnancies. There are common, itchy, cutaneous eruptions. It is usually around the cracks in the abdomen. It is then spread to the extremities. In therapy; oral itch prevention drugs and and skin moisturizers are used. In many cases, rashes occur just before or several days after birth.
Acne: It is generally not affected by pregnancy. Retinoic acid used by women to become pregnant is contraindicated during pregnancy. Topical drugs are preferred instead.
Psoriasis: Topical corticosteroids can be tried in 20% of patients. UV-B phototherapy can be used in all body-spreading types. Softening, thinning and breakage of the nails may occur.